AskDefine | Define infection

Dictionary Definition

infection

Noun

1 the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
2 (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound
3 (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
4 an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted [syn: contagion, transmission]
5 the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people; "a contagion of mirth"; "the infection of his enthusiasm for poetry" [syn: contagion]
6 moral corruption or contamination; "ambitious men are led astray by an infection that is almost unavoidable"
7 (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. The act or process of infecting.
  2. An uncontrolled growth of harmful microorganisms in a host.

Derived terms

Translations

the process or infecting
  • Czech: infekce, nákaza
  • Finnish: tarttuminen
  • French: infection
  • Hebrew: התדבקות
  • Interlingua: infection
  • Japanese: 伝染
uncontrolled growth of harmful microorganisms in a host
  • Czech: infekce, nákaza
  • Finnish: tartunta, infektio
  • French: infection
  • Hebrew: התדבקות
  • Japanese: 感化

French

Noun

fr-noun f

Interlingua

Noun

ia-noun es
  1. The act or process of infecting.

Extensive Definition

An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. In an infection, the infecting organism seeks to utilize the host's resources to multiply (usually at the expense of the host). The infecting organism, or pathogen, interferes with the normal functioning of the host and can lead to chronic wounds, gangrene, loss of an infected limb, and even death. The host's response to infection is inflammation. Colloquially, a pathogen is usually considered a microscopic organism though the definition is broader, including feces, parasites, fungi, viruses, prions, and viroids. A symbiosis between parasite and host, whereby the relationship is beneficial for the former but detrimental to the latter, is characterised as parasitism. The branch of medicine that focuses on infections and pathogens is infectious disease.
A secondary infection is an infection that occurs during or following treatment of another already existing primary infection.

Colonization

Wound colonization refers to nonreplicating microorganisms within the wound, while in infected wounds replicating organisms exist and tissue is injured. All multicellular organisms are colonized to some degree by extrinsic organisms, and the vast majority of these exist in either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with the host. An example of the former would be the anaerobic bacteria species which colonize the mammalian colon, and an example of the latter would be the various species of staphylococcus which exist on human skin. Neither of these colonizations would be considered infections. The difference between an infection and a colonization is often only a matter of circumstance. Organisms which are non-pathogenic can become pathogenic under the right conditions, and even the most virulent organism requires certain circumstances to cause a compromising infection. Some colonizing bacteria, such as Corynebacteria sp. and viridans streptococci, prevent the adhesion and colonization of pathogenic bacteria and thus have a symbiotic relationship with the host, preventing infection and speeding wound healing.
The variables involved in the outcome of a host becoming inoculated by a pathogen and the ultimate outcome include:
  • the route of entry of the pathogen and the access to host regions that it gains
  • the intrinsic virulence of the particular organism
  • the quantity or load of the initial inoculant
  • the immune status of the host being colonized
As an example, the staphylococcus species present on skin remain harmless on the skin, but, when present in a normally sterile space, such as in the capsule of a joint or the peritoneum, will multiply without resistance and create a huge burden on the host.

Occult infection

An occult infection is medical terminology for a "hidden" infection, that is, one which presents no symptoms. Dr. Fran Giampietro discovered this type, and coined the term "occult infection" in the late 1930s.

Bacterial or viral

Bacterial and viral infections can both cause similar symptoms such as malaise, fever, and chills. It can be difficult, even for a doctor to distinguish which is the cause of a specific infection. It's important to distinguish, because viral infections cannot be cured by antibiotics.

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

abomination, adulteration, aerial infection, afflatus, airborne infection, animating spirit, animation, animus, atrocity, bad, bane, befouling, befoulment, besmirchment, blight, carrier, communicability, contagion, contagiousness, contamination, corruption, crying evil, cryptogenic infection, damage, defilement, despoliation, destruction, detriment, direct infection, dirtying, divine afflatus, droplet infection, dust infection, enlivenment, envenoming, epidemiology, evil, exhilaration, festering, fire, firing, fouling, genius, grievance, hand infection, harm, havoc, hurt, ill, indirect infection, infectiousness, infusion, injury, inspiration, mischief, misuse, moving spirit, outrage, perversion, phytogenic infection, poison, poisoning, pollution, primary infection, prostitution, pyogenic infection, ritual uncleanness, secondary infection, soiling, subclinical infection, suppuration, taint, the worst, toxin, vector, venom, vexation, virus, vitiation, waterborne infection, woe, wrong, zoogenic infection
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